Executive dysfunction is a common symptom among patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or Mathematical Learning disability (MLD). Current research evidence indicates that anxiety can lead to numerous cognitive deficits. Therefore, through comparing executive functioning in children with ADHD/MLD, who have high and low levels of anxiety, the present study examined the probable role of anxiety in intensifying their problems in executive functions, especially verbal and visuospatial working memory. In a retrospective quasi-experimental study, 8-12 years old children, who were diagnosed with ADHD and MLD comorbidity were selected using purposive convenience sampling (n=85). They completed the multidimensional anxiety scale for children. Then, due to their scores on this scale, 20 children with high anxiety (1.5 standard deviations and more above the mean) and 20 children with low anxiety (1.5 standard deviations and more below the mean) were selected and placed in two groups. Then, executive functions assessment tasks, including the Tower of London test, the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS), and Benton’s Visual Retention Test, were carried out. Collected data were analyzed using the independent t-test. Findings showed that anxiety can be considered as an intensifying factor in the executive functioning of children with ADHD and MLD. Therefore, executive functions can be improved by balancing the levels of anxiety and preventing further impairment of executive function in these children.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Executive functions; Mathematical learning disability; Verbal working memory; Visuospatial working memory
Introduction: Self-compassion helps adolescents to accept themselves unconditionally and Future Time Perspective (FTP) can make them motivated to do their meaningful tasks in the future. Method: Method was a semi-experimental method (pre-test –post-test research) with a control group. The statistical population of the study consisted of 6,232 male students (14-16 years of age) at the 13th district of Tehran (Iran), the sample size was 30 people who were selected by available sampling method and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Two questionnaires include self-compassion of Neff (2003) and FTP of Brothers, Chui& Diehl (2014) these will be administered three times, a pre-test, a post-test and a follow-up test. Group counseling held in twelve sessions for experimental group for three months, the collected data from pretest, posttest and follow up were analyzed by SPSS software with the help of factorial mixed design with a repeated measure. Result: The results show the effectiveness of strength-based group counseling on self-compassion (self-kindness, common humanity, mindfulness, and over-identification) and FTP (opportunities, limitations, and ambiguities) after three months of group counseling. Conclusion: Finding signature strengths (five highest strengths) through analyzing life’s experiences helps students to be aware of what they can do well, to learn how they can make decisions about their future, based on character strengths and to accept their limitations without self-censure.
Future time perspective; Self-compassion; Strength-based group counseling
In this study, considering the importance of treatment of addiction as an illness, we have analyzed a model of harvesting of facilities for the rehabilitation and treatment as a new application of game theory. According to the results of this research, it is possible to avoid a waste of money, energy, and facilities with better management of allocating facilities and we can treat more addicts.
Game theory; Dynamic systems; Harvest function; Statistical mechanics
False memory is normally examined by the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and it has shown an indirect association with gender stereotypes. In this study, gender effect on the false memory formation along with the influence of emotional words stimuli were examined. 60 subjects (30 female) were recruited and they were exposed to 4 lists of 12 words in a DRM paradigm. Effects of gender stereotypes were examined using 2 lists of gender categorized words. In addition, the emotional effect of the stimuli was also investigated by 2 lists of negatively-valanced or neutral lures (eg. blood or chair). Subsequently, false memory rates in the male and female participants were statistically compared using a mixed ANOVA model. The results showed a significant differential effect of gender on the false memory formation as well as negative and neutral word stimuli.
False memory; Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm; gender stereotypes
The relation between objective reality and subjective perception is a controversial issue. In modern cognitive science many of well-known scientists believe that evolution prefers veridical perception systems which constitute representations which are similar to external reality, but in a recent theory which entitled as “interface theory of perception” D.D. Hoffman and his colleagues remark evolution prefers interfacial perceptual system which reflects the objective reality in a manner that there is no congruency between the perception and perceived object. It seems this theory neglects the environmental dramatic changes but we think this parameter can change the situation and bring and significant evolutionary advantage for veridical species.
Interface theory of perception; Veridical perception; relation of subjectivity and objectivity
Studies have shown that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) tend to gaze aversion during social interaction. It also has been observed that autistic people have significant problems in performing social tasks, including face recognition. Researches emphasize the role of face gaze, especially visual communication in social interaction and learning. In this paper, we propose an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to model the ASD’s deficiency in face recognition. We used Olivetti Research Laboratory (ORL) face database and chose pictures which fitted our desires. The ANN was trained and tested in three trial experiments; in the experiment 1 (exp. 1), we used pictures with up-masked faces (the upper half of the faces had been blurred) in order to model ASD’s face recognition problem, in the experiment 2 (exp. 2), pictures with normal pictures was used for simulation normal individuals’ face recognition; and in the experiment 3 (exp. 3), we used pictures with down-masked faces as a test group. Testing results show 20.00% error in the exp. 1, 4.44% error in the exp. 2, and 10.00% error in the exp. 3. Based on these results, the proposed network emphasizes the face recognition problem in ASD as a result of eye contact aversion.
Autism; Face Recognition; Eye Contact; Artificial Neural Network
In this article, we try to model the effect of the changes of the threshold voltage of two positive inputs to negative ones using nanotechnology-based on Quantum Dot Cellular automata (QCA). In order to do so, the voter of a Majority cell has been modified resulting in amplifying the negative effect of the upper and the lower cells. Besides this Brain-inspired approach can be used to design a very fast Majority function with two negative inputs based on QCA.
Neural Network; Bio-inspired nanostructure design; Nanotechnology; QCA; Power consumption; Majority Gate
In recent decades, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has displayed an incremental prevalence rate. Due
to the unavailability of a definite cure, the early diagnosis of the disorder is of high significance. There
is evidence suggesting the discriminable differences between resting-state networks of people
who suffer from the disorder and healthy individuals. This distinguishability allows for utilization of
fMRI imaging to perform as a good instrument for identifying autism spectrum disorder. In this
paper, a tensor decomposition method for the diagnosis of autism form fMRI images is presented. The
selected dataset for testing the performance of the proposed algorithm is ABIDE1. All site of the
ABIDE1 is used for training the algorithm which is a challenging problem in fMRI data analyzing.
Our proposed method successfully achieves the classification performance of about 60% for all site
Autism spectrum disorder; Tensor decomposition; ABIDE
Everyone has beliefs about how the world works and how they behave depends heavily on their beliefs about how the real world works. Cognitive psychologists believe that the mind actively represents the outside world and the way people interact with and behave with the environment is the result of these changes and manipulations that occur in mental representations. Scientists also believe that in the face of the phenomena of the outside world, there is an interactive relationship between the mind and behavior with the brain; So that the occurrence of a phenomenon, along with the entry of information into the brain, and the analysis and processing of that information by the mind, results in conscious or unconscious behavior in the human. In other words, there is an interactive relationship between brain, mind, and behavior (MBB). Therefore, the present study attempts to examine MBB in the case of human exposure to economic inflation. This is an applied and developmental research with the type of library study and uses the new findings of cognitive science to explain this relationship. The findings indicate that following inflationary shocks and the transfer information of monetary loss to the mind, the activity of the striatum, the ACC, the MPFC, and the amygdala increase and information about emotional actions that are contrary to mental habits transmit to the highest cognitive unit of the brain. Consequently, it leads to cognitive and behavioral changes in humans. Thus, in the face of economic inflation, the MBB relationship is also confirmed.
Human Brain, Mind, Behavior, Prefrontal Cortex, Economic Inflation
The risk based portfolio selection problem with investor’s behavioral risk aversion bias under uncertainty is monitored. The main results of this research are developed heuristic approaches for the prospect theory model proposed by Kahneman and Tversky in 1979 as well as an empirical numerical analysis of this model with real data. The main purpose is to impose behavioural features of prospect theory to minimize the risk with the certain level of income to the portfolio selection problem. In this research the real data of TSE is employed for computational results with regards of prospect theory model with several stocks as risky assets. In order to investigate empirically the performance of the behaviourally based model, different portfolios are selected with different operating sectors. The aggressive behaviour in terms of returns of the prospect theory model with the specific risk have the same output as returns. In the other hand, the certain level of returns as constrain shows minimized risk with implimentation of behavioral approach in compare to conventional approach which is Markowitz model. The performance of the two behavioral and traditional models are compared and lower risks are obtained by behavioral approach which shows the optimal portfolio selection and might be used by investors as their investment strategy.
Portfolio optimization; Behavioural finance; Prospect theory; Risk modelling
Perceptual organization is one of the most hotly debated issues in visual perception. Human adults, in normal conditions, process global features faster than local details, the effect that is called “Global Precedence”. Researches have shown that as stimulus eccentricity gets more distant from the fovea, the perceptual decisions of local details become more delayed. This even happens when the gaze is fixated on the center of the field of view and the stimulus location is manually adjusted. The present study aims to explore the eye movement strategies in the process of global and local features, when the gaze point is not restricted to a particular fixation point. Fourteen participants were asked to respond to Matching and Similarity Judgment tasks. The data was recorded using EYELINKII™, with a sampling frequency of 1000Hz. The Global Precedence Effect (GPE) was observed in the two tasks. Additionally, a higher average of “arbitrary eccentricity” in global trials was observed as compared to local trials. Arbitrary eccentricity was referred to as the eccentricity individuals unconsciously choose to perceive the stimuli. Furthermore, the number of fixations were significantly greater in local trials. From our findings, we speculate that in daily life we can perceive the world globally with peripheral vision and not always need eye-movements and only decide to focus foveally when selectively attending to local details seems necessary.
Eye movement strategy, Global precedence, Global-Local processing, Visual perception.